Periodontal disease

The major cause of periodontal disease is a reaction of the immune system of the patient against bacterial plaque. Risk factors include:

  • Genetics (hereditary)
  • Smoking
  • Some systemic diseases such as diabetes
  • Conditions causing significant hormonal changes such as pregnancy or menopause
  • Medications
  • Stress that directly affects the quality of immune defense
  • Malnutrition